Types of E-payment and Initiatives
The following types of electronic payments are most common today. That said, it is important to realize that new payment types are continual being discovered and there are additional methods that exist or are being developed continuously.
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Credit cards, debit cards and prepaid cards currently represent the most common form of electronic payments. For all 3 types of cards the consumer or the business most often uses a plastic card, commonly with a magnetic stripe. The cardholder gives his or her card or card number to a merchant who swipes the card through a terminal or enters the data to a PC. The terminal transmits data to his or her bank, the acquirer. The acquirer transmits the data through a card association to the card issuer who makes a decision on the transaction and relays it back to the merchant, who gives goods or services to the cardholder. Funds flow later for settlement with credit cards and are debited immediately for debit or pre-paid cards. Along with magnetic stripe cards, smart cards are and will increasingly be used for payments. Smart cards are at present overwhelmingly plastic credit cards with an embedded computer chip. Until recently, many smart cards operated using proprietary rather than common standards. A standard set of specifications, EMV, has been developed and is being used increasingly so that the chips on smart cards are interoperable. Korea and Japan are among the most advanced countries in Asia for smart card payments, with Malaysia catching up fast due to government mandates for banks to issue smart cards. Most credit and debit cards are expected to be issued or reissued as smart cards by 2008 or earlier. Over time, the chip for payment can be expected to move onto other devices. A �smart card� might then become the computer chip in a phone, PDA or other device that can perform the same function as chip in a plastic card, eliminating the need for the actual plastic card. Smart cards could thus evolve into �smart phones�, �smart PDAs� or other �smart� devices.
Online payments involve the customer transferring money or making a purchase online via the internet. Consumers and businesses can transfer money to third parties from the bank or other account, and hey can also use credit, debit and prepaid cards to make purchases online. Current estimates are that over 80% of payments for online purchases are made using a credit card or debit card. At present, most online transactions involve payment with a credit card. While other forms of payment such as direct debits to accounts or pre-paid accounts and cards are increasing, they currently represent a less developed transaction methodology.
Mobile Payments
Mobile phones are currently used for a limited number of electronic transactions. However, the percentage seems likely to increase as mobile phone manufacturers enable the chip and software in the phone for easier electronic commerce. Consumers can use their mobile phone to pay for transactions in several ways. Consumers may send an SMS message, transmit a PIN number, use WAP to make online payments, or perform other segments of their transaction with the phone. As phones develop further, consumers are likely to be able to use infrared, Bluetooth and other means more frequently to transmit full account data in order to make payments securely and easily from their phone. Additionally, merchants can obtain an authorization for a credit or debit card transaction by attaching a device to their mobile phone. A consortium in the US also recently announced PowerSwipe, for example, which physically connects to a Nextel phone, weighs 3.1 ounces, and incorporates a magnetic stripe reader, infrared printing port, and pass-through connector for charging the handset battery.
Financial Service Kiosks
Companies and service providers in several countries, including Singapore and the US, have set up kiosks to enable financial and non-financial transactions. These kiosks are fixed stations with phone connections where the customer usually uses a keyboard and television-like screen to transaction or to access information. At AXS stations in Singapore, for example, consumers can make electronic bill payments, send email or SMS message and make phone calls. Kiosks in the United States enable the customer to send money via wire transfers, cash checks, make purchases using cash, and make phone calls. Located at convenient public locations such as bus or subway stations, convenience stores or shopping malls, these kiosks enable electronic payments by individuals who may not have regular access to the internet or mobile phones.
Television Set-Top Boxes and Satellite Receiver
Specialized boxes attached to a television can also be used for payments in some locations. The set-top box attaches to the television and a keyboard or other device, and customers can make purchases by viewing items on the television. Payment is made electronically using a credit card or other account. While usage is presently low, it could grow substantially in countries with a strong cable or satellite television network.
Biometric Payments
Electronic payments using biometrics are still largely in their infancy. Trials are underway in the United States, Australia and a limited number of other countries. Most biometric payments involve using fingerprints as the identification and access tool, though companies like Visa International are piloting voice recognition technology and retina scans are also under consideration. Essentially, a biometric identifier such as a fingerprint or voice could replace the plastic card and more securely identifies the person undertaking the transaction. The electronic payment is still charged to a credit card or other account, with the biometric identifier replacing the card, check or other transaction mechanism.
Electronic Payments Networks
Various countries have electronic payments networks that consumer can use to make payments electronically. ACH (Automated Clearing House) in the US, domestic EFTPOS networks in Australia and Singapore, and other networks enable electronic payments between businesses and between individuals. The consumer can go online, to a financial service kiosk or use other front-end devices to access their account and make payments to businesses or other individuals.
Person-to-Person (P2P) Payments
P2P payments enable one individual to pay another using an account, a prepaid card or another mechanism that stores value. PayPal in the US, which was recently purchased by Ebay, is one of the most frequently used P2P mechanisms. The Tower Group estimates that the volume of P2P payments will grow from 105 million transactions in 2002 to 1.4 billion transactions by 2005. P2P payments can be made through a variety of means, including services like PayPal, transfers using card readers, or other. In the future other devices, such as mobile phones or PDAs, could also be used to enable P2P electronic payments.